Threats to Space Security:
- space junk;
- militarization of Space;
- impact on the Earth from the Outer Space.
Technogenic and military manifestations in space can be eliminated in two ways:- exclusion of man-made junk by replacing disposable space technique on returning to the Earth reusable Spacecrafts (Orbiters) and return to the Earth an elements of Launch Vehicles (reusable LV);;
- observation and control of space objects.
The non-used satellites, the rocket stages and the space boosters flying in near-Earth space, in the 21st century, accumulated in such quantities that they are dangerous for flights in space now.
After the operation, such objects were not originally planned to be returned to Earth. They gradually lose altitude and burn in the Earth atmosphere. However, this process is stretched for decades. And the pace of satellite launches is such that previously launched objects do not have time to descend from their orbits.
As a result, the problem of "space junk" has appeared.
“Space junk” around the Earth.
Until the launches of disposable Spacecrafts have ceased – the problem of "space junk" will not be eliminated.
Research Institute of Space Industrialization (ISI) offers an engineering (technical) decision:
- Only the returned spacecrafts (Orbiters) need launched into Space;
- Launch vehicles and rocket stages return from orbits to Earth.
Any modern satellite can be maneuvered on Earth's orbits to avoid collisions with other objects, and it can be returned to Earth - it's Orbiter.
Research Institute of Space Industrialization has analyzed and developed three models of Orbiters:
- weight up to 50 kg, Orbiter USC-50-X (launching by a single-stage Launch Vehicle LV-50-X weighing up to 400 kg, landing by a parachute), altitude of Orbiter flight 100-140 km, landing by a parachute; presented on the website https://institutespaceindustrialization.webstarts.com (Poster 1);
- weighing up to 500 kg, Orbiter USC-500-X (launching by a two-stage Launch Vehicle LV 1.2P weighing about 31 tons, booster stages landing by parachutes), operational altitude of Orbiter is to 1,400 km, used parachute landing system; presented on the website https://institutespaceindustrialization.webstarts.com (Poster 7);
- weighing up to 1000 kg, Orbiter USC-1000-X (launching by LV 1.2P (see above)), Orbiter flight altitude up to 1400 km, parachute landing system; presented on the website https://institutespaceindustrialization.webstarts.com (Poster 7);
- and the version Orbiter USC-1000-X with a single-stage solid-propellant Launch Vehicle (D-1000, weighing up to 54 tons, landing by parachutes), altitude of Orbiter from 140 km and above, landing by parachute system; presented on the website https://institutespaceindustrialization.webstarts.com (Poster 6).
1. Orbiter is a maneuvering satellite with an aerodynamic fairing. In open space, the fairing is shifted, opening access for the satellite's equipment to the space, before the landing, the fairing is pushed back to its original position.
2. Orbiter with masses from 50 kg to 1000 kg, with orbits of flight from 100 km to 1,400 km in height, can replace all existing satellites.
3. The proposed Launch Vehicles and their stages take a brake by gas remnants under pressure, and descend from orbits for landing.
4. Orbiters and Launch Vehicles stages when landing are caught by helicopters on parachute system and transferred by helicopters to a service and storage site.
5. Orbiters perform the functions of apogee stages; upper stages of LV are not needed.
6. Due to maneuvers, Orbiter in open space does not collide with other Spacecrafts.
To control the launches of Launch Vehicles, Orbiter space flight, as well as to control the landing of the Spacecrafts, are use the opportunity of National Space Facilities Control and Test Center (NSFCTC) State Space Agency of Ukraine.
Within the framework of the proposed program OPEN WORLD - UKRAINE NSFCTC can provide information without restrictions. Experience of such work is available: NSFCTC maintains a catalog of celestial objects with the definition of the flight orbits, monitors the trajectories of re-entry Spacecrafts to Earth. Currently, the NSFCTC is exchanging information within the framework of the space programs of the European Union: Copernicus, Proba-V, MetOp, and navigation support systems the EGNOS.
Technical capabilities of NSFCTC can solve the problem of the space militarization: due the control of space objects in the interests of the security of space and the whole of mankind.
The program OPEN WORLD - UKRAINE with its components eliminates man-made and military manifestations in space.
In addition, by the OPEN WORLD - UKRAINE project can provide ground control of global security.
NSFCTC have monitoring and observing equipment
- Nature seismic manifestations (earthquakes, information on the site http://nkau.gov.ua/nsau/nkau.nsf/Main1E/indexE?opendocument);- Technogenic seismic manifestations (nuclear, thermonuclear and other explosions, launches of heavy Launch Vehicles);
- Fall of space objects to the Earth (for example, the fall of the Chelyabinsk meteorite). Re-entry of space objects into Earth atmosphere.
Information obtained through the international OPEN WORLD - UKRAINE project is fully accessible to program participants in international cooperation.
The complex of orbital support, control and management, as well as global terrestrial monitoring, allows eliminating a numbers of the problems of ensuring the security policy of mankind, first of all in space security.
- LEVENKO Oleksandr, Director of the RESEARCH Institute of Space Industrialization, Ukraine;
- PRYSIAZHNYY Volodymyr, PhD, Chief of National Center Of Space Facilities Control And Test State Space Agency of Ukraine, Honorary President of the RESEARCH Institute of Space Industrialization, Ukraine;
- PAUK Oleh, CEO's councelor of State Enterprise “Production Association Yuzhny Machine - Building Plant named after A. M. Makarov”, Ukraine; co-Director of the RESEARCH Institute of Space Industrialization, Ukraine.
The authorship of the proposed technical solutions is confirmed by publications, patents, speeches at international forums:
1. Levenko O. S., Drozdenko O. S., Pauk O L. Demonstrator. Technical proposal: Monograph. – D., Dominanta Print, 2016. – 20 p.
2. Kukushkin V. I., Levenko A. S., Uruskyi O. S., Sabadosh L. Y. Aerospace Plane. The Time of Researches and Achievements / Translating from Russian into English V. V. Shepel. – Dnepropetrovsk: Dominanta Print, 2015, - 104 p.
3. Levenko O. S., Pauk O. L., Prysiazhnyy V. I. Rocket and space complex. Technical proposal // Mechanics of aerospace systems: Monograph. – D.: Serednjak T. K, 2014. - 64 p.
4. Levenko O. S. A small-sized missile system with a return orbiter. Technical proposal / Mechanics of aerospace systems: Monograph. – D.: Ltd. «TU», 2013. - 74 p.
5. Levenko O. S., Prysiazhnyy V. I., Pauk O. L., Drozdenko O. S. Evaluation of the possibility of using polyurethane fuel in a single-stage carrier of an unmanned orbiter for orbital and suborbital flights // Space Science and Technology. 2016. T. 22. # 1. – P. 36-51.
6. Prysiazhnyy V. I., Levenko O. S., Pauk O. L. Aspects of the creation of a returned orbiter in the form of a satellite for remote sensing of the Earth and a launch vehicle // Space Science and Technology. 2014. T. 20. # 4. - P. 3–13.
7. Levenko A. S., Pauk O. L., Prisyzhniy V. I. Optimization of technical solutions for creation of a rocket space complex With Ultra Light Launch Vehicle // The 2016 China-Ukraine Forum on Science and Technology, Harbin, China, 5th-8th July, 2016.
8. Method of flight to the near-earth orbit of a reusable airspace device and a reusable airborne vehicle for carrying out the method. Patent for invention UA 84479 dated October 27, 2008. Authors Alekseev Y. S., Kukushkin V. I, Levenko O. S.
9. Levenko A. S., Prisyazhny V. I., Pauk O. L., Drozdenko A. S. Evaluation of the possibility of using polyurethane fuel in a single-stage carrier of an unmanned orbital vehicle for orbital and suborbital flights // Space Science and Technology. 2016. Volume 22. No. 1. - P. 36-51.
According to current forecasts, asteroids 20-70 m in size can fall to the Earth in the period up to 90 years and cause significant damage to the Earth's surface.
To ensure space (asteroid) safety, planetary duty can be organized to detect, intercept and destroy approaching asteroids of this size.
On duty, there may be a D-1000 interceptor missile with a 500 kg metal kinetic interceptor (payload of a space apparatus).
Solid rocket single-stage, mixed fuel. Instead of traditional rubber, the composition of the fuel includes polyurethane with a service life of up to 90 years. The project was accepted in the Science and Technology Park of the Harbin Institute of Technology in Qingdao (China): 2016 Project QD-Ukraine-005 (http://institutespaceindustrialization.webstarts.com).
According to the calculations, the asteroid may be destroyed at an altitude of about 140 km. The description of the technical idea was worked out in 2020 and is presented on the Internet page http://institutespaceindustrialization.webstarts.com/space_missions.html: Space strike. Mission Possible.
Space Monitoring Center of the SMAS ensures:
• Collecting information on space objects,
administering the Main Catalog and the Catalog of priority space objects;
• Operational estimation of the orbital constellation
and the state of ground facilities;
• Planning of the application of the means of Space monitoring and analysis;
• Formation of messages on space situation and
bringing them to consumers of information.
The National Center is working on involving to the SMAS both national and foreign facilities of space objects monitoring.